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To achieve their conservation objectives, MPAs need clear and committed governance and management. This cannot be done in isolation. So how can the involvement of relevant stakeholders – local communities and industry among them – be secured at all levels?
MPA managers need effective methods and tools to consult and empower various components of society.
Local communities, especially in islands and remote coastal areas, have for generations based their livelihood mainly on sustainably managed marine resources. Even though they do not hold official MPA status, Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) must be recognized for their role in nature conservation.
Industries are often kept away from MPAs since they are perceived as threats to biodiversity. However, their sustainable development depends on the conservation of ecosystem services. For this reason, collaboration with the private sector is often fruitful, and win-win relationships can be worked out.